Hootastic Phonics

PhonicsSounds Cheat Sheet

Howto use this information

  • This sheet will help you with the phonics soundsand how to help your student use them while reading.
  • If your student gets stuck on a word whilereading, use this information to help them break down the word correctly.

Short Vowel sounds

  • Short a like apple
  • Short e like Ed
  • Short i like itch
  • Short o like octopus
  • Short u like up

Long Vowel Sounds

Magic e

“The e makes the vowel say its name (usethis phrase as a reminder to your student)

Long a_e like safe

Long e_e like Pete

Long i_e like pine

Long o_e like home

Long u_e (2 sounds) like rule and mule

Long Vowel Teams

“When 2 vowels go walkingthe first one does the talking and it says its name!”” (use this phrase as a reminder to your student)

Long  a vowel pairs:ai, ay

Long e vowel pairs: ee, ea, ei

Long I vowel pairs: ie, igh (gh makes i say long i)

Long o vowel pairs: oa, oe, ow

Long u vowel pairs: ue, ew

Doubleoo will try to trick you!

oolike goo             oo like cook

oo like boot, hoot             foot

ew like new                  book

u_e like tune               look

_ue like blue

Y the sly guy!

When y isat the end of a word it sometimes say “e” and other times says “I”

Y says long “I” in a       Y says long “e” in a

1 syllable word          2 syllable word

fly        shy       try            funny          carry

my        cry                        silly        Friday

Dipthongs:ou, ow, au, aw, oi, oy

 ou and ow like ouch!                             awand au have a crush on each other.When

-ou isusually at the                               they are next to each other they say “awwwwww

beginning or middle                               -auis usually at the beginning or middle of a word

-ow is at thebeginning,                         -awis at the beginning, middle, or end of a word        

middle, or end of a word                                  aw like                                                 au like

ou like              ow like                                      saw                                    auto

bounce                cow

oi and oy

oi isusually at the beginning or middle of the word.

oy is atthe beginning, middle, or end of the word.

     oi like oi                                                                oylike boy


Theletter r is very bossy when it comes after a vowel. It changes the sound of thevowel so make sure you pay attention to bossy r!

ar                      er, ir and ur all say /er/like bird               

ar says arrrgh          er           ir              ur                  or   

(like a pirate!)            her                 shirt                hurt                     fork

     star                       soccer           girl                  curly                           
germ             twirl                nurse               

Digraphs:sh, ph, ch, wh, th

Digraphsare 2 letters that make only 1 sound when together.

sh                      ph                      ch            wh             th              

 ship                     phone                  chin            whistle         thumb



Blendsare 2 or 3 consonants that are next to each other in a word. All of the soundsare blended together. Blends can be in the beginning, middle, or end of a word.

cloud                pretty  blue                  stripe   scream

            mask               felt                  went                 raspberry        

ckis used to say /k/ after a short vowel


HardG and Soft G                           Hard C and Soft C

Hard g says /g/ like                                                                 Hard c says /k/ like

grape, gave, glass, gum                                                             cup, popcorn, cat

The g is hard when it is followed                            The cis hard when it is followed

by an a, o, u or aconsonant    .                          by ana, o, u or a consonant.

Soft g says /j/ like                                                            Softc says /s/ like

gym, giant, germ                                                                 city,cell, center, circle, cylinder

The g is soft when it is followed                                        The cis soft when it is followed

by an e, i, or y(most often)                                 by an e, i, or y (most often)

3sounds of the ed ending

When edis added to the end of the word it has three different sounds.

ed says /ed/ like started

ed says /d/ like yelled

ed says /t/ like jumped


If your student gets stuck askthem to look for…

  • Wordfamilies- Look in the word for a word family that we know.

  • LittleWord- Look for a little word inside the word.

  • Magic e- If aword ends with an e and can jump over one letter and land on a vowel, you havea magic e. He tells the vowel he lands on to “Say Your Name!”

Example: cave

  • Try theother sound- If you blend the word and it doesn’t sound right,try blending the word using the vowels different sounds.

  • Blending- When youare “breaking down” a word, add one sound at a time.

Example: cat

Firstmake the hard c sound.

Thenadd the a sound.

Blendthe c and a together.

Thenadd the ending t sound. Then smooth all three sounds together.

  • Your student should go back and reread the word to make sure it soundsright and that it makes sense.